Application of energy-saving technology in construction engineering
In the insulation technology of building envelope structure, high-efficiency energy-saving building materials, exterior wall insulation technology, high-efficiency insulation doors and windows and heat reflection insulation technology are generally adopted. The use of new materials for efficient and energy-saving buildings and the practice of composite walls are being promoted. The wall is made of rock wool, glass wool, polystyrene plastic and other composite walls to reduce the heat transfer coefficient of the outer wall. In terms of door and window insulation, technical measures such as controlling window-to-wall ratio, increasing the number of window glass layers, adding insulation curtains, and using door and window seals are also gradually being promoted and applied in buildings. In the southern region and in the hot summer and cold winter regions, the roof can also be shaded and insulated. In addition, by comprehensively considering the ventilation, shading, natural lighting, etc. of the building, the building envelope structure can be optimized and integrated to achieve energy saving purposes.
In the field of energy system energy-saving technologies involved in construction equipment, the use of advanced cooling, heating systems and other equipment and control technology has actively promoted the development of building energy efficiency.
The first is computer simulation and intelligent control technology. Optimize energy-saving control of the cooling and heating systems to minimize operating energy consumption.
The second is heat pump application technology. The heat pump principle is utilized to utilize low-temperature and low-grade thermal energy resources to realize low-grade energy transfer to high-grade energy through a small amount of high-grade electric energy input. At present, it mainly includes air source heat pump technology and water source heat pump technology, which can supply heat and cooling to buildings, effectively reduce building heating and cooling energy consumption, and reduce regional environmental pollution.
The third is variable air volume air conditioning technology. Variable air volume air conditioning system is an energy-saving air conditioning method. The entire air conditioning system can adjust the total air supply volume as the load changes, especially during partial load operation, which can minimize the power consumption of the fan and save energy. At the same time, the air conditioning and refrigeration unit can also be operated only according to the actual user and needs, which also reduces energy consumption and operating costs. With a variable air volume air conditioning system, the total installed capacity of the air conditioner is greatly reduced.
The fourth is the waste heat recovery technology of fresh air treatment and air conditioning systems. Fresh air loads generally account for 30% to 40% of the total load of the building. If the fresh air volume can change from the minimum fresh air volume to the new wind, it can save nearly 60% of energy consumption in spring and autumn. Through the full-heat heat exchanger, the air-conditioned room exhausts the hot air and the fresh air, and the air-conditioning system uses the cooling and dehumidification of the air-conditioning room to realize the waste heat recovery of the air-conditioning system.
The fifth is the radiation heating energy-saving technology. Floor radiation, ceiling radiation, and vertical plate radiation are the primary means of radiant heating. It is an energy-saving heating system that regulates the thermal and microclimate of the room, avoiding the feeling of blowing and making people feel comfortable. In the case of low-grade waste heat, groundwater and other low-grade renewable cold heat sources, this method can directly use these cold heat sources, eliminating the need for conventional cold heat sources.
Sixth is the cogeneration technology. By adopting the combined heat and power production method, the centralized heat supply of waste heat is used to replace a large number of small boilers with low dust removal efficiency, which can greatly reduce the emission of atmospheric pollutants and effectively improve the environmental quality. Compared with the direct use of boiler heating, cogeneration increases energy efficiency and can greatly reduce primary energy consumption.
In addition, there are solar thermal utilization technologies and building energy consumption simulation analysis technologies. Solar energy is used to provide building hot water, winter heating and summer cooling, while photovoltaic technology can be used to power buildings. Building energy consumption simulation analysis technology is based on comprehensive consideration of climatic conditions, various heat transfer methods, the orientation of buildings, the performance of wall materials and other factors to assess the energy requirements of buildings. It has important significance for energy-saving optimization of building heating and air-conditioning systems, energy-saving renovation of existing buildings, and operation and management of air-conditioning systems.